History of the city of Borispol
Boryspil is one of the most ancient settlements in the Kyiv region known for its chronicles like Letch, Leto, Olto. The area where the modern city is located is mentioned in the annals of 1015-1154 as a fortified place with the names Lto, L’to, Alpo, Olto - from the Alta River. The modern name “Borispol” comes from the name of Prince Boris, who was murdered by his brother Sviatopolk in 1015. Since then, this area has been named Boryspil, and hence the modern name of the city.
People's remittances indicate that the name of the city is also connected with bidding. In ancient times, on the site of Boryspil, there were many people who could buy or sell, that is, to get a “barysh”, meaning benefit. The old names likeBarysh field, Baryshpil, which, according to popular etymology, have passed to Boryspil.
The first chronicle mention of it refers to the beginning XI century when in the fratricidal war (1015-1019) between the sons of Kyivan Prince Vladimir on the river Alti Prince Boris was killed, which from 1072 was canonized as one of the first saints of Kiev Rus. The name Boris is associated with the modern name of the city. Next, Letch is repeatedly mentioned in the chronicles until 1154 as a fortified settlement, which stood on the elevation between the two arms of the River Alta. The area was marshy and woody. The litch during the Kiev Rus was not only a fortified point on the border of the Kiev and Pereyaslav principality, but also a place of change of horses and a place of rest for various embassies, messengers, princely wives, princes.
In 1117, in a place where "Blood of Boris" spilled, Vladimir Monomakh built a stone church, which is mentioned in the annals as "LetskBozhnytsa". This church repeatedly suffered from the attacks of nomads. It was completely destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars in 1239.
In the center of Boryspil, there are still remains of a defensive shaft, and archaeological research carried out in 1925 and 1950 confirmed the presence of remnants of the foundation of the ancient temple and finally proved the existence of the Monomakh church in Borispol.
In the period from IX to XII century. A number of fortified settlements near the modern villages were built between Kiev and Pereyaslav: Lyubartsi, Ivanankov, Stare, Golovuriv, Voronkov, Glibok, Protsiv, many fortified settlements arose. During the Mongol-Tatar invasion, settlements on the territory of the modern Boryspil district and Letch himself were destroyed. And already from the XIII century these lands pass under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Later, this territory became known as the "Land of the Half-Kniazhess". The archival documents of this period testify that the "Land of the Half-Kniazhess" was givento the royal columnist SoltanAlbayevich. In 1508, he sold these lands to the Kiev Pustynno-Mikyl monastery. Monks owned the land by the end of the XVI century. Most likely, at this time Boryspil got its modern name. On the monastic lands in this period began to settle fugitives from the Right Bank.
Some of the villages in the district are also mentioned in the acts of this period: Gnidin, Vishenky, Stare, Soshnikov, Sal'kiv, Bulachin (Yerkivtsi), Protsiv. 3 credentials from 1525, we find out that then there were also the villages Zherebiatin, Rogoziv, Voronkiv, Ivankiv.
After 1569, all the Ukrainian lands that used to belong to the Lithuanians went to the Polish Crown. According to the decision of the Polish Sejm from 1590, the town of Borispol was acquired by VoytechChanovytsky, which in the documents of 1590 is referred to as a Hetman of the Zaporozhian Cossacks. In these documents, Borispol was first mentioned as a town.
At the end of the XVI - early XVII century. Ukraine covers a number of Cossack-peasant uprisings. For the suppression of the uprising led by Nalivayka (1594-1596), the Sejm complained to the Zolkiewski Magistrate BoryspilStarostoy initially in the grave possession, and from 1623 it became the property of the Zholkevsky family (it remains until 1648). Then in Boryspil there were 77 farms and about 370 people.
During the Polish rule, the city was granted Magdeburg law. The history of Boryspil is inseparable from the struggle against Polish domination. The population of the city and the surrounding villages participated in the uprising of non-resident Cossacks under the leadership of TarasFedorovich (Tryasylo).
The liberation war led by Bogdan Khmelnytsky (1648-1654) put an end to the Polish-gentry rule in Ukraine. The whole edge was divided according to the Zaporizhya tradition on the shelves and hundreds. One of the regimental cities was Pereyaslav, hundreds, among others, Boryspil and Voronki. To the Boryspil hundreds belonged to the villages: Nesterivka, Kuchakiv, Lebedin, Staritsa, Senkivka, Ivankiv, Darnitsa and a number of farms, to Voronkivskaya - the village of Gliboke, Kisliv, Kalne, Rudyakiv.
Cossacks enjoyed the free right of ownership of their lands, did not carry any obligations, did not pay taxes and received a salary.
During the Russian-Polish War (1654-1667) Borispol suffered great devastation several times. In 1658, he was exterminated and burnt by order of the Sheremetyev governor (during the battles between the troops of Hetman I.Vygovsky and the tsarist troops). Borispol at that time was the property of D. Vygovsky, brother of the Hetman. The same fate happened to the town of Voronkiv and other villages and farms.
He recognized Boryspil considerable losses in the spring of 1661, and in the autumn of 1663, when he was captured by Polish troops. In July 1666, a revolt against the power of the Cossack elder and royal voivods broke out in Pereyaslav. The uprising of the Cossacks of Pereyaslav and Borispol was raised. In August of the same year, the uprising was suppressed.
At the end of the XVII centuryBorispol became quite a large town with two gates - Pereyaslav and Kiev, several streets. Here mostly brokers were occupied with crafts and industry. In the XVIII century Boryspil turned into a significant economic center. This was facilitated by the fact that Kyiv-Poltava also traveled there.
On January 14, 1752 Hetman Kirill Rozumovsky handed Borispol with the surrounding lands to the eternal possession of his sister and her husband Y. Daragan.
In the 60's of the XVIII century. There were artisan workshops in the town: Shvevsky, tailors, forge, fork, furry and others. Crafts were handled by one third of Boryspil's population. Almost half of Boryspil's population was engaged in farming.
Particular attention deserves the name of the poet and preacher of XVIII century I.G.Nekrashevich from the village of Vyshenky (now Boryspil district). He graduated from Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, was a priest in his native village. The poetic heritage is small - now only nine of his works are known. Against the backdrop of poetry of that time, the works of I. Nekrashevich are distinguished by the purity of the folk language, humor, ease of style, simplicity of content.
In the first half of the XIX centuryIn Ukraine there was a Little Russian Society - a secret organization, which included the native Borispol V.L.Lukashevich (1783-1866). He was also included in the Masonic lodges of "3 united Slavs." One of the sessions is a bed at the start. In 1824 he was in Borispol in his estate. In 1826, V.L.Lukashevich was arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress, and then sent to Boryspil under the supervision of the Malorossiysk Governor-General.
In 1802, Boryspil became the provincial center of the Pereyaslav district of the Poltava province. There were three parish schools in the city, and in 1642 an initial folk college was opened for state peasants.
Borispol late XIX century was a large city (with about 5 thousand inhabitants), which was equipped rows of shops, weekly crowded bazars and three fairs: Syropusnaya, Petropavlovsk, Evstafievsk. Especially great bargaining was peasant footwear, the production of which was engaged inhabitants of Boryspil.
In the second half of the XIX century. Many forces and energy to spread culture and education among the masses were applied by the native Borispol inhabitant P. P. Chubinsky (1639-1884). He studied ethnography, conducted statistical studies of the Southwest Territory. His scientific works were awarded the gold medal of the Russian Geographical Society and the Academy Award, and in 1875 - a gold medal at the International Congress in Paris. P.P. Chubinsky is the author of the anthem of our state "Ukraine has not died yet" (1862).
He linked his fate with Borispol and prominent Ukrainian composer M.V/ Lysenko. He spent his winter vacations in 1861 with his colleague P.P. Chubinsky in Borispol, the composer discovered a true treasure trove of folklore, recording almost the largest number of folklore works. A beautiful language, unusual for Ukraine of those times, of his message has long attracted the heart of the composer. In Borispol, he met Anton Kalita, who became a faithful assistant to M.V. Lysenko. A.Kalita was an extremely musical gifted person, knew a lot of songs, he himself recorded the lyrics, passing them to the composer.
In March 1917, the Central Rada came to power in Ukraine. Her head was M. Hrushevsky, V. Vinnichenko, S. Petliura. The main purpose of the Central Council was to create an independent Ukrainian state. In January 1918, the Ukrainian People Republic was proclaimed, in the same 1918 Ukraine was drawn into a civil war. In April 1920, parts of the Polish Army entered the territory of Ukraine, and with them the troops of the Ukrainian People's Republic.
In 1921, Soviet rule was established in Borispil. Agricultural unions began to be created. In the same year Boryspil became a member of the Kiev province, and in 1923 it became the center of the district.
3 1929 begins collectivization. It was a real tragedy for the Ukrainian peasantry. As elsewhere in Ukraine, in Borispil region it was accompanied by a massive dispossession, the destruction of the most prosperous and therefore the richest stratum of peasantry. People in the collective farm were reluctantly, resisted collectivization. A wave of "female rebellion" swept through. The horsemen's militia from Kiev was called to suppress such a rebellion in Borispil. But despite the resistance of the population, collectivization continued. Three small unions are formed by four collective farms: Shevchenko, Kirova, "Sickle and Hammer", "Victory".
Then there were terrible years of the Holodomor (1932-1933). Boryspilwas saved by the fact that it city was not far from Kiev, so people were able to exchange bread, flour, cereals in Kyiv's bazars.
Also, the terrible wave of Stalinist repression destroyed testament of the Ukrainian nation. Many residents of the district and the city of Borispil became victims of repressions.
World War II brought terrible trials for the city. Already on the second day of the war, June 23, 1941, the German air force bombed a military town and airfield, located on the outskirts of the city of Borispil. On September 23, the fascists captured the city.
In February 1943, in the Dnieper Forests near Soshnikov, the partisan detachment began to function. The soldiers of the detachment destroyed the German pledges, tied battles with punitive. The most significant contribution of the partisans can be called the preservation of the sugar plant from destruction. Fascist punitive detachments were also rescued from about ten villages in the district.
The liberation of Boryspil district began in September 1943, two armies (38th under the command of N. E. Chibisov, 40th - under the command of K.S. Moskalenko) dismissed the Boryspil district.
Borispil liberated 136th division under the command of I. Pusikov. On the night of September 23, division fighters burst into the city, seized the airfield, many weapons, and many prisoners. The city was burning.In the city remained one-fifth of the houses (out of 3 thousand only 600 remained). Everywhere there were solid ruins and fires.
During two years of occupation, the Nazis killed and rolled around 497 citizens. More than 5 thousand were taken to Germany. In the battles for the liberation of the Motherland more than 8 thousand residents of the district were killed.
Immediately after the liberation of the district, reconstruction began. According to the documents, in 1950 the rebuilding of farms was completed. Dairy factory, food-processing plant, bakery, peat enterprise began to work. On the basis of the workshops of the consumer union there was an industrial complex, in 1967 the construction of the cinema "Friendship" began. In 1959 the state farm "Borispolsky" was founded, in 1966 the state farm "Promin": vegetable and dairy enterprise was established.
In 1965, the first passengers arrived to the new Boryspil Airport, which became the largest international airport in Ukraine.
On July 7, 1959, the first passenger flight was made to Boryspil Airport. Tu-104 with the first plane which flew from Moscow. This is how the history of the largest airport in Ukraine began.
In the early years the civilian air fleet used the military aircraft infrastructure. Aircraft station in Borispil was banned. The role of terminals at that time was carried out by small temporary houses, similar to the houses in the villages. The new terminal in Boryspil began to receive first passengers in 1965.
Innovation at that time was the construction of the terminal "all under one roof". For the first time in the USSR international and domestic flights were serviced in one building.
At the beginning 70s Boryspil began to intensively develop: the village of gas pipeline builders grew, new residential neighborhoods appeared, where the airport's employees lived predominantly. As evidence, at the beginning. In the 80s, 36 industrial and agricultural enterprises, 27 construction and transport enterprises were operating on the territory of the city and the district. There were 20 secondary and 8 eight-year schools, 50 medical institutions, 34 cultural buildings and clubs, 47 libraries, sports and music schools, a district home of culture, and a culture house. Boryspil district of the late 60's and 90shad136 large and small enterprises and organizations, 15 state farms, and four poultry farms.
The Boryspil Historical Museum, the cinema, and the district library operate in the area. In the district there are seven rural culture houses, 20 village clubs, many departmental clubs and libraries.
Now Borispol occupies an area of 37 square meters. km. The population is 61 586 people.